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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 275-283

Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive nanodrug delivery system of acyclovir

Department of Pharmaceutics, Al Ameen College of Pharmacy, Near Lalbagh Main Gate, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560 027, India

Correspondence Address:
U V Bhosale
Department of Pharmaceutics, Al Ameen College of Pharmacy, Near Lalbagh Main Gate, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560 027
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DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.90236

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Acyclovir is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, with an oral bioavailability of only 10-20% [limiting absorption in gastrointestinal tract to duodenum and jejunum] and half-life of about 3 h, and is soluble only at acidic pH (pKa 2.27). Mucoadhesive polymeric nanodrug delivery systems of acyclovir have been designed and optimized using 2 3 full factorial design. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50:50) was used as the polymer along with polycarbophil (Noveon AA-1) as the mucoadhesive polymer and pluronic F68 as the stabilizer. From the preliminary trials, the constraints for independent variables X 1 (amount of PLGA), X 2 (amount of pluronic F68) and X 3 (amount of polycarbophil) have been fixed. The dependent variables that were selected for study were particle size (Y 1 ), % drug entrapment (Y 2 ) and % drug release in 12 h (Y 3 ). The derived polynomial equations were verified by check point formulation. The application of factorial design gave a statistically systematic approach for the formulation and optimization of nanoparticles with the desired particle size, % drug release and high entrapment efficiency. Drug: Polymer ratio and concentration of stabilizer were found to influence the particle size and entrapment efficiency of acyclovir-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. The release was found to follow Fickian as well as non-Fickian diffusion mechanism with zero-order drug release for all batches. In vitro intestinal mucoadhesion of nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of polycarbophil. These preliminary results indicate that acyclovir-loaded mucoadhesive PLGA nanoparticles could be effective in sustaining drug release for a prolonged period.

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