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INVITED ARTICLE
Microcrystalline cellulose as a versatile excipient in drug research
N Saigal, S Baboota, A Ahuja, J Ali
January-March 2009, 1(1):6-12
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.51868  
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has emerged as the most resourceful excipient of all times in drug research. Thanks to its profusion in terms of grades available for different needs and its physical properties that support a variety of functionality requirements especially for the most frequently used unit dosage forms. MCC can be used as a bulking agent, disintegrant, binder, lubricant, and glidant besides being a stability enhancer and a secondary suspending agent. It can be used in direct compression of most drugs and saves material, capital, equipment, and labor. Its ever increasing applications in drug research include its utility in immediate release (tablets and liquids) dosage forms, sustained release dosage forms (multiparticulates and matrix tablets), topical preparations, oral liquids, organoleptic enhancements as in chewable and mouth dissolving tablets, anti-reflux, and nutraceuticals. The review discusses these applications in sufficient detail citing examples and investigating the justifications for such functions.
  15,649 846 1
PHARMACEUTICAL MANAGEMENT
ABC and VED analysis of the pharmacy store of a tertiary care teaching, research and referral healthcare institute of India
M Devnani, AK Gupta, R Nigah
April-June 2010, 2(2):201-205
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.63170  PMID:21264126
The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy.
  12,813 272 -
PHARMACEUTICS
Hordeum vulgare hull in the design of fast disintegrating tablets
H Rajpurohit, P Sharma, S Sharma, S Purohit, A Bhandari
July-September 2011, 3(3):211-215
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.83763  PMID:21897660
In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium.
  11,340 1 -
Colon targeted drug delivery: Different approaches
S Jose, K Dhanya, TA Cinu, J Litty, AJ Chacko
January-March 2009, 1(1):13-19
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.51869  
Oral colon-targeted drug delivery systems have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration- local treatment of a variety of colonic diseases as well as systemic absorption of proteins and peptides. Targeting of drugs to specific sites of action provides several advantages over non-targeting of drugs. The colon, as a site for drug delivery, is also beneficial for the treatment of diseases sensitive to circadian rhythms and delivery of poorly absorbable drugs. The successful targeted delivery of drugs to the colon via the gastrointestinal tract requires the protection of a drug from degradation and release in the stomach and small intestine and then ensures abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon. This review will cover both past and present approaches for achieving colon specific drug delivery.
  6,941 1,354 3
Fast dissolving sublingual films of ondansetron hydrochloride: Effect of additives on in vitro drug release and mucosal permeation
M Koland, VP Sandeep, NR Charyulu
July-September 2010, 2(3):216-222
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.66790  PMID:21042474
Ondansetron hydrochloride, a 5 HT3 antagonist is a powerful antiemetic drug which has oral bioavailability of 60% due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 5 h. To overcome the above draw back, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate fast dissolving films of ondansetron hydrochloride for sublingual administration. The films were prepared from polymers such as polyvinylalcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Carbopol 934P in different ratios by solvent casting method. Propylene glycol or PEG 400 as plasticizers and mannitol or sodium saccharin as sweeteners were also included. The IR spectral studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer or with other additives. Satisfactory results were obtained when subjected to physico-chemical tests such as uniformity of weight, thickness, surface pH, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, swelling index, bioadhesive strength, and tensile strength. Films were also subjected to in vitro drug release studies by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug permeation studies were carried out using porcine membrane model. In vitro release studies indicated 81-96% release within 7 min and 66-80% within 7 min during ex vivo studies. Drug permeation of 66-77% was observed through porcine mucosa within 40 min. Higher percentage of drug release was observed from films containing the sweeteners. The stability studies conducted for a period of 8 weeks showed no appreciable change in drug content, surface pH, and in vitro drug release.
  6,499 245 2
PHARMACOLOGY
Pharmacology of recombinant or genetically engineered drugs
Kamal Kishore, Pawan Krishan
April-June 2009, 1(2):141-150
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.55747  
Recombinant technology or genetic engineering is a modern method used for the synthesis of therapeutic agents. The central theme of recombinant technology is the process of "gene cloning" which consists of the production of a defined fragment of DNA and its propagation and amplification in a suitable host cell. Drugs developed by recombinant technology or genetic engineering are known as biologics, biopharmaceuticals, recombinant DNA expressed products, bioengineered, or genetically engineered drugs. A current list of various products developed by recombinant technology includes erythropoietin, coagulation modulators, enzymes, hormones, interferons, interleukins, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, anti-rheumatoid drugs, and various other agents like TNF, becaplermin, hepatitis-B vaccine, antibodies etc. This article provides general as well as recent pharmacological information on different aspects of recombinant drugs that may be useful for their better understanding by users and health care professionals.
  5,986 230 -
PHARMACEUTICS
Skin penetration enhancement techniques
M Bharkatiya, RK Nema
April-June 2009, 1(2):110-115
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.55741  
Transdermal drug delivery systems allow delivery of a drug into the systemic circulation via permeation through skin layers at a controlled rate. In addition to the currently marketed formulations, new drugs are being formulated using the transdermal system because of the inherent advantage of administration by this route. It offers a noninvasive route of drug administration, although its applications are limited by low skin permeability. Innovative research exploiting penetration-enhancing strategies, such as iontophoresis, electroporation, microneedles, and sonophoresis, holds promise for the successful use of these drugs as consumer-friendly, transdermal dosage forms in clinical practice. This review outlines promising new technologies involved in enhancing transdermal permeation.
  4,601 689 -
Development and characterization of niosomal drug delivery of gliclazide
S Tamizharasi, A Dubey, V Rathi, JC Rathi
July-September 2009, 1(3):205-209
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.57065  
In the present study, gliclazide-loaded niosomes are formulated and evaluated for their in vitro as well as in vivo characteristic in an attempt to improve the oral bioavailability of the drug. Formulation of niosomes was optimized for highest percentage of drug entrapment. Microscopic observation confirmed that all particles were uniform in size and shape. The entrapment efficiency was determined by separating the unentrapped drug using dialysis. The in vitro release studies of drug from niosomes exhibited a prolonged drug release as observed over a period of 24 h. The positive values of zeta potential indicated that the gliclazide niosomes were stabilized by electrostatic repulsive forces. Results from stability study have shown that the drug leakage from the vesicles was least at 4ºC followed by 25 and 37ºC. The niosomes showing maximum entrapment and suitable release rate were selected for in vivo evaluation. In conclusion, the niosomal formulation could be a promising delivery system for gliclazide with improved bioavailability and prolonged drug release profile.
  4,518 566 3
PHARMACOGNOSY
Chemical composition of Curcuma Longa leaves and rhizome oil from the plains of Northern India
PK Awasthi, SC Dixit
October-December 2009, 1(4):312-316
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.59319  
Hydro distillation of rhizomes and leaves of Curcuma longa resulted in the isolation of 0.36% and 0.53% of oils (w/v) respectively on a fresh weight basis. GC and GC-MS analysis resulted in the identification of 73 constituents in rhizomes comprising 95.2% of the oil, of which the major ones were ar-turmerone (31.7%), α-turmerone (12.9%), β-turmerone (12.0%) and (Z) β-ocimene (5.5%). In the oils, 75 constituents comprising 77.5% of the oils were identified, the major ones were α-phellantrene (9.1%), terpinolene (8.8%), 1,8-cinceole (7.3%), undecanol (7.1) and p-cymene (5.5%).
  4,736 285 -
PHARM ANALYSIS
Derivative spectrophotometry method for simultaneous estimation of rupatadine and montelukast in their combined dosage form
PG Patel, VM Vaghela, SG Rathi, NB Rajgor, VH Bhaskar
October-December 2009, 1(4):354-358
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.59327  
This study describes the development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of rupatadine and montelukast by the first-order derivative UV spectroscopy method. The quantification was achieved by the first-order derivative spectroscopy method at 273.46 nm and 297.27 nm over the concentration range of 5-25 µg/ml for estimation of rupatadine and montelukast in a combined tablet formulation. Procedure does not require prior separation of components from the sample. Rupatadine and montelukast were determined at 15 µg/ml with a mean recovery of 99.59 + 0.225 and 99.21 + 0.76, respectively. Calibration curves were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 and 0.9992 for rupatadine and montelukast, respectively. The relative standard deviation was found to be <2.0%. The present result shows that the proposed method can be successfully used for simultaneous determination of the drug content in marketed formulations.
  4,733 226 3
PHARMACOGNOSY
Pharmacognostical studies and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Ficus bengalensis linn
VV Patil, RB Pimprikar, VR Patil
January-March 2009, 1(1):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.51879  
Pharmacognostical parameters for the leaves of Ficus bengalensis were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species: macroscopical and microscopical characters, physio-chemical constants, extractive values with different solvents, fluorescence analysis of dry powder, its reaction after treatment with chemical reagents under visible light, and UV light at 254 nm and 366 nm. Preliminary phytochemical studies on the Ficus bengalensis leaves were conducted. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analyses of this species. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of ficus bengalensis were evaluated in experimental animals. We have determined the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of the bark of Ficus bengalensis by oral administration of doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. The extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0 3h after injection. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Ficus bengalensis , significantly reduced ( P <0.05) carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts showed a greater anti-inflammatory effect compared with the standard drug Indomethacin. The present results indicated the ethanolic extract of Ficus bengalensis exhibited more significant activity than petroleum ether in the treatment of inflammation.
  4,357 586 3
PHARM ANALYSIS
Zero order spectrophotometric method for estimation of escitalopram oxalate in tablet formulations
S Sharma, H Rajpurohit, C Sonwal, A Bhandari, VR Choudhary, T Jain
October-December 2010, 2(4):420-423
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.71626  PMID:21264107
A new, simple, fast and reliable zero order spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of Escitalopram Oxalate in bulk and tablet dosage forms. The quantitative determination of drug was carried out using the zero order values (absorbance) measured at 238 nm. Calibration graph constructed at 238 nm was linear in concentration range of 2-20 μg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9999. The method was found to be precise, accurate, specific, and validated as per ICH guidelines and can be used for determination of Escitalopram Oxalate in tablet formulations.
  4,658 2 -
PHARM CHEMISTRY
Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of benzimidazole derivatives as potential anxiolytics
DT Nannapaneni, VSSS Gupta Atyam, MI Reddy, Sarva Ch Raidu
July-September 2010, 2(3):273-279
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.66809  PMID:21042485
The synthesized benzimidazoles compounds were prepared from the condensation reaction between o-Phenylenediamine and various carbonyl compounds, in the presence of ammonium chloride as a catalyst. Ammonium chloride is a commercial and environmentally benign catalyst. The yield of all benzimidazole derivatives was found to be in the range of 75 - 94%. The purity of the compounds was ascertained by melting point and TLC. The synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, 1 H NMR, and MASS spectral data together with elemental analysis. The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were screened for acute and chronic anti-anxiety activity in Wistar rats by using an elevated plus maze model with standard Diazepam. The synthesized compounds Z B , Z E , Z F , Z G , and Z H showed potent anti-anxiety activity when compared to the standard Diazepam. The compound Z H exhibited a higher anti-anxiety activity when compared to other prepared benzimidazoles. The results were subjected to statistical analysis by using one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test, to calculate the significance.
  4,523 132 1
PHARMACEUTICS
Formulation and evaluation of extended-release solid dispersion of metformin hydrochloride
SA Patil, BS Kuchekar, AR Chabukswar, SC Jagdale
April-June 2010, 2(2):121-129
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.63147  PMID:21264113
The purpose of this research was to formulate and characterize solid dispersion (SD) of metformin hydrochloride using methocel K100M as the carrier by the solvent evaporation and cogrinding method. The influence of drug polymer ratio on drug release was studied by dissolution tests. Characterization was performed by fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The optimized formulation was subjected to accelerated stability testing as per ICH guidelines. Release data were examined kinetically. SD with 1:4 and 1:5 ratio of drug to polymer obtained by solvent evaporation and cogrinding were selected as the best candidates suitable for prolonged-release oral dosage form of metformin.
  4,162 347 2
PHARMACOGNOSY
Cytomorphological studies on stem of Luffa echinata Roxb
S Jayalakshmi, A Patra, AK Wahi
July-September 2010, 2(3):252-254
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.66800  PMID:21042480
Luffa echinata Roxb., commonly known as Bindal in Hindi is used for its hypoglycemic activity in the indigenous system of medicine. No pharmacognostical study on stem is reported in the literature till date; therefore, it was decided to study macroscopical and cytomorphological characters in detail to bring out salient diagnostic features. The stem pieces available in the market are 1.5-17 cm long and 5-8 mm in diameter, showing yellowish-brown to brownish-black surface with longitudinal furrows, fracture is fibrous, and taste is bitter. Mature stem shows single-layered epidermis, seven layers of collenchyma below five ridges but one to two layers of parenchyma in rest of the region beneath the epidermis, continuous wide wavy layer of pericycle composed of three to eight layers of fiber. There are five conjoint bi-collateral open vascular bundles one below each ridge and additional four medullary vascular bundles in the pith each facing furrows.
  4,428 59 -
PHARMACEUTICS
In vitro evaluation of novel sustained release microspheres of glipizide prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion-evaporation method
P Phutane, S Shidhaye, V Lotlikar, A Ghule, S Sutar, V Kadam
January-March 2010, 2(1):35-41
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.62210  PMID:21331188
The objective of the current investigation is to reduce dosing frequency and improve patient compliance by designing and systematically evaluating sustained release microspheres of Glipizide. An anti-diabetic drug, Glipizide, is delivered through the microparticulate system using ethyl cellulose as the controlled release polymer. Microspheres were developed by the emulsion solvent diffusion-evaporation technique by using the modified ethanol,-dichloromethane co-solvent system. The polymer mixture of ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 was used in different ratios (1:0, 1:1, 2:3, 1:4 and 0:1) to formulate batches F1 to F5. The resulting microspheres were evaluated for particle size, densities, flow properties, morphology, recovery yield, drug content, and in vitro drug release behavior. The formulated microspheres were discrete, spherical with relatively smooth surface, and with good flow properties. Among different formulations, the fabricated microspheres of batch F3 had shown the optimum percent drug encapsulation of microspheres and the sustained release of the Glipizide for about 12 h. Release pattern of Glipizide from microspheres of batch F3 followed Korsmeyers-peppas model and zero-order release kinetic model. The value of 'n' was found to be 0.960, which indicates that the drug release was followed by anomalous (non-fickian) diffusion. The data obtained thus suggest that a microparticulate system can be successfully designed for sustained delivery of Glipizide and to improve dosage form characteristics for easy formulation.
  4,116 358 1
Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of parenteral sustained release microsphere formulation of zopiclone
N Swapna, AV Jithan
July-September 2010, 2(3):223-228
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.66792  PMID:21042475
The aim of this study was to prepare zopiclone-loaded polycaprolactone microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique with different drug-to-carrier ratios {MP 1 (1:1), MP 2 (1:2), MP 3 (1:3), and MP 4 (1:4)}, characterize and evaluate the in vivo performance. The microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, drug excipient compatibility, percentage yield, drug entrapment, and in vitro release kinetics. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were evaluated after parenteral administration so as to determine the sustained action of the drug after one-time administration of the formulation in a rat model. Of four formulations prepared, MP 2, i.e., 1:2 (drug-polymer) ratio was selected as the optimized formulation based on particle size, particle shape, and the release behavior. The size of microspheres was found to be ranging from 5.4 to 12.1 μm. The shape of microspheres was found to be spherical by SEM. Among the four formulations, MP 2 (1:2) showed maximum percentage yield of 75% ± 2.68%. There was no interaction between drug and polymer by FT-IR study. In the in vitro release study, formulation MP 2 (1:2) showed 86.5% drug release and was found to be sustained for 10 days. The microsphere formulations were able to sustain the release of drug both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacodynamic study (Maze apparatus) indicated that the anxiolytic activity shown by zopiclone microspheres was significant when compared to the zopiclone solution given daily.
  4,308 149 -
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
Comparative study of RP-HPLC and UV spectrophotometric techniques for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and cloxacillin in capsules
Do T Giang, Vu D Hoang
April-June 2010, 2(2):190-195
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.63168  PMID:21264124
Reversed-phase HPLC and UV spectrophotometric techniques using water as solvent have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and cloxacillin in capsules. For both techniques, the linearity range of 60.0-140.0 ΅g/mL was studied. The spectrophotometric data show that non-derivative techniques, such as absorbance ratio and compensation, and ratio spectra first-order derivative could be successfully used for the co-assay of amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Based on the statistical comparison of spectrophotometric and chromatographic data, the interchangeability between HPLC and UV spectrophotometric techniques has been suggested for the routine analysis.
  4,159 140 -
PHARMACOLOGY
Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extracts of Dillenia indica L. leaves
SB Yeshwante, AR Juvekar, DM Nagmoti, SS Wankhede, AS Shah, RB Pimprikar, DS Saindane
January-March 2009, 1(1):63-66
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.51885  
The anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Dillenia indica Linnaeus (Family Dilleniaceae) leaves were observed in various experimental models related to inflammation to provide some evidence for its traditional use. Anti-inflammatory activity was observed in carrageenan-induced edema and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability. The methanol extract showed significant ( P <0.01) anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema test and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The extract at 100 mg/kg showed significant ( P <0.05) activity in acid-induced permeability. These findings support the folkloric use of Dillenia indica in diseases related to inflammatory conditions.
  3,878 373 1
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
Synthesis and characterization of 2, 5-disubstituted-1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles as potential anti-inflammatory agents
K Ilango, P Valentina, N Umarani, T Kumar
January-March 2009, 1(1):72-76
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.51882  
The aim of this study was to design, synthesize, and investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of some novel 2, 5-disubstituted - 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives. Ethyl-4-acetamido phenoxy acetate (I) was prepared by the condensation of ethyl chloroacetate with starting material p-acetamidophenol in the presence of dry acetone and anhydrous potassium carbonate. Hydrazinolysis of (I) with hydrazine hydrate results in the formation of 4-acetamidophenoxy acetyl hydrazide (II), which on cyclisation with various substituted aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phosphorous oxychloride affords various 2, 5-disubstituted - 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives (IIIa-IIIi). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1 HNMR, and MS spectral data. The titled compounds were screened for in vivo anti- inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method. A few of them manifested promising activity when compared with the standard drug Diclofenac sodium.
  3,779 464 1
PHARMACEUTICS
Design and in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive microcapsules of pioglitazone
C Singh, KA Jain, C Kumar, K Agarwal
July-September 2009, 1(3):195-198
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.57063  
Mucoadhesive microcapsules of pioglitazone were prepared using sodium alginate as a shell forming polymer and Carbapol 974, HPMC, Sodium CMC as a mucoadhesive polymer for the potential use of treating acute and chronic diabetes mellitus. Large spherical microcapsules with a coat consisting of sodium alginate and a mucoadhesive polymer could be prepared by orifice-ionic gelation process. The microcapsules exhibited good mucoadhesive properties and drug release from these mucoadhesive microcapsules was slow and extended over longer periods of time, depending on the composition of the coat. These mucoadhesive microcapsules are, thus, suitable for oral controlled release of pioglitazone.
  3,455 649 -
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS
A new RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of nebivolol hydrochloride and hydrochlorthiazide in dosage forms
Y Gupta, A Shrivastava, D Duggal, A Patel, S Agrawal
July-September 2009, 1(3):264-269
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.57078  
A new RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of nebivolol hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical dosage forms, using ultra violet (UV) detector. Elution was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.2 ± 0.1) in the ratio of 50:50 v/v and flow rate was set on 1.2 ml/min at 282 nm. The retention time for hydrochlorothiazide and nebivolol hydrochloride was found 3.57 and 6.66 mins, respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 8-32 mg/ml and 20-80 mg/ml for nebivolol hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. In the linearity study, regression equation and coefficient of correlation for nebivolol hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide were found to be: y = 284761x + 215452, r = 0.9995; and y = 698395+105272, r = 0.9998, respectively.
  3,735 313 2
PHARMACEUTICS
Formulation and evaluation of drug-free ophthalmic films prepared by using various synthetic polymers
Dipti H Patel, Manish P Patel, Madhabhai M Patel
April-June 2009, 1(2):116-120
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.55742  
An attempt has been made to formulate drug-free ophthalmic films by using different polymers in single use as well as in combinations for matrix system design for ocular use and to study the effect of various plasticizers on physicochemical characteristics and permeability of the resultant films. Drug-free films of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Eudragit RL 100 polymers were prepared by the solvent casting method on a mercury surface by employing distilled water and ethanol as solvents, and glycerol and dibutyl phthalate as plasticizers. These films were evaluated for weight variation, uniformity of thickness, tensile strength, percentage of elongation at break, folding endurance, hardness, surface pH, and water vapor permeability. Permeability characteristics of these films were studied using Ofloxacine as a model drug. Film properties of various synthetic polymers such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Eudragit RL 100 were studied for their utility in the formulation of ophthalmic inserts. Sterility test was carried out before performing an irritation study on albino rabbit eyes. There was no sign of any irritation, redness, swelling, or haziness in the rabbit's eyes even after 24 hours after removal of the film.
  3,707 338 -
Formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of effects of super disintegrants in cefixime oral disintegrating tablets
KS Remya, P Beena, PV Bijesh, A Sheeba
July-September 2010, 2(3):234-239
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.66794  PMID:21042477
The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate.
  3,890 143 1
Development and evaluation of gelatin microspheres of tramadol hydrochloride
JB Jeevana, G Sunitha
January-March 2009, 1(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/0975-1483.51871  
To develop formulations for effective management of chronic pain without side effects associated with NSAIDs and COX-2 antagonists, Tramadol hydrochloride, an opioid antagonist, was encapsulated within Gelatin microspheres for controlled delivery for longer periods. The microspheres were prepared using a single emulsion technique and were investigated. Tramadol hydrochloride could be encapsulated into Gelatin microspheres with an entrapment efficiency of 97.2%. Spherical, transparent, and free-flowing microspheres were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the spherical structures under the magnification of 200 m. The FTIR and DSC analysis indicated the stability and compatibility of the drug in gelatin microspheres. The microspheres were in the suitable particle size range of 20 to 160 m. The drug was released continuously for a period of 12 hrs with a maximum release of 99.79%.
  3,334 452 1
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